Automotive IT interviewed experts on AI in a special article, “Cleaning Up with AI Experts” Automotive IT, Special: Artificial Intelligence (September, issue 05/2019). Prof. Dr. Christoph Schlueter Langdon of the Telekom Data Intelligence Hub explains the three steps for the success with AI, highlighting the importance of causality rather than correlation.
“‘Without a hypothesis of the relation between cause-and-effect, fishing expeditions have little use. […] Statistics only provide correlations, not causality. An example: Health and economic performance are positively correlated, but where should you invest the next Euro: in health or economic growth?,’ explains Schlueter Langdon.”
“At the start it is important to condense a problem into a question, which you want to answer with the data analysis.”
“Then it’s about further narrowing the focus by forming hypotheses grounded in theory, a so-called causal model. ‘If this causal model cannot fit on a napkin, then you should not continue at all,” suggests Schlueter Langdon.”
“Only then can the right data be identified, refined and finally analyzed. Another core principle with AI: All information required to answer the question must be included in the data, otherwise there is the risk of GIGO (Garbage In, Garbage Out). “No raw iron without iron ore in the rock: Same with data – one has to ensure that it contains the information required to solve a problem,” the data science expert explains.
“‘Especially with Neural Networks, the quality of results depends almost entirely on the quality of the training data,’ clarifies the Data Science expert. For example, in so-called Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), the labeling quality directly determines the accuracy of image recognition results. ‘The description of the training data has to be very granular for each object’, the expert notes.”